Concurrent programs often make use of futures, handles to the results of asynchronous operations. Futures provide means to communicate not yet computed results, and simplify the implementation of operations that synchronise on the result of such asynchronous operations. Futures can be characterised as implicit or explicit, depending on the typing discipline used to type them.
Current future implementations suffer from “future proliferation”, either at the type-level or at run-time. The former adds future type wrappers, which hinders subtype polymorphism and exposes the client to the internal asynchronous communication architecture. The latter increases latency, by traversing nested future structures at run-time. Many languages suffer both kinds.
Previous work offer partial solutions to the future proliferation problems; in this paper we show how these solutions can be integrated in an elegant and coherent way, which is more expressive than either system in isolation. We describe our proposal formally, and state and prove its key properties, in two related calculi, based on the two possible families of future constructs (data-flow futures and control-flow futures). The former relies on static type information to avoid unwanted future creation, and the latter uses an algebraic data type with dynamic checks. We also discuss how to implement our new system efficiently.